Negative energy balance occurs around calving due to the gap formed by reduced intake in feed at a time when demand for energy for late foetal growth and milk production rapidly increases. When this becomes excessive, e.g. where an animal has more marked decrease in intake due to lameness, sickness, being over conditioned, twin bearing, inadequate water or feed access, constant social disruption, etc. they are at risk of getting ketosis, ketones building up in blood, milk and urine. This is as a result of breaking down their body fat to fill this widened energy gap. In excess these ketones have negative consequences with respect to fertility, health and production.
Consequences of ketosis
When thinking of ketosis often what springs to mind are the pear drop smell, milk drop, supressed appetite and poor rumen fill. However, these are indicators of clinical ketosis and are the tip of the iceberg.
There will be many other cows with high ketone levels which will affect their health and performance and show no clinical signs – this is known as hidden or subclinical ketosis.
Hidden ketosis has been described by one nutritionist, Hefin Richards of Rumenation Nutrition Consultancy, as “like driving with the handbrake on. Everything else you do will have limited return, as cows will not be able to reach their potential.”
Identifying cows at risk of ketosisProblems with transition cows usually manifest in the month immediately after calving. However, multiple factors can contribute, and many of the important precipitating factors start prior to calving, ie. in the dry cows. Find out more on how to identify the cows at risk of ketosis here.
Kexxtone™ Mode of Action
1. Walsh R.B., Walton J. S. et al. The effect of subclinical ketosis in early lactation on reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. 2007;90: 2788-2796.
2. Ospina P. A., Nydam D.V. et al. Association between the proportion of sampled transition cows with increased nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and disease incidence, pregnancy rate, and milk production at the herd level Journal of Dairy Science 2010;93: 3595-3601.
3. How Metabolic Diseases Impact the Use of Antimicrobials:A Formal Demonstration in the Field of Veterinary Medicine Didier Raboisson1*, Maxime Barbier1, Elise MaigneÂ2 PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0164200 October 7, 2016
4. Raboisson et al., 2015. The economic impact of subclinical ketosis at the farm level: Tackling the challenge of over-estimation due to multiple interactions. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 122 (2015) 417–425
5. LeBlanc, S., 2010. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in the transition period. Journal of Reproduction and Development 56 (Suppl), S29–S35.
6. Santos et al, Proc. 2013 Dairy Cattle Reproduction Council Conference, Indianapolis, IN, p 32-48
7. Major Advances in Disease Prevention in Dairy Cattle, S J LeBlanc, K D Lissemore, D F Kelton, T F Duffield, K E Leslie. American Dairy Science Association 2006.
8. Macrae, A.I. et al. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical ketosis in UK dairy herds 2006-2011. World Buiatrics, Lisbon, Portgual, 2012
9. Elanco Farm Audit 2011, No. GN4FR110006. Data on file.Kexxtone™ is a veterinary medicine authorized to reduce the incidence of ketosis in periparturient dairy cows and heifers which are expected to develop ketosis. Kexxtone™ is not authorized for the treatment of any other transition disorder. Kexxtone contains Monensin. Ensure correct disposal to prevent access to used or recovered boluses to other species including dogs, horses and guinea fowl. Legal category POM-V in UK. Further information is available from the Summary of Product Characteristics. Advice should be sought from the medicine prescriber prior to use. Kexxtone, Elanco and the diagonal bar are trademarks of Elanco or its affiliates. Use medicines responsibly (http://www.noah.co.uk/responsible). PM-UK-20-0426