Treatment of coccidiosis
When to treat can be a matter of knowing the farm’s history and when challenges are expected. In general, lambs are most at risk from 4-8 weeks of age, and while rising faecal oocyst counts can be indicative of an emerging problem, these are not diagnostic on a single sample unless speciation is carried out. If you are unsure, talk to your vet who will be able to provide a diagnosis.
Older lambs can also be at risk, and coccidiosis is most often seen in older lambs from hill or upland flocks at weaning time. These lambs may not have had sufficient exposure earlier in life for immunity to develop, and when weaned into a higher challenge environment, often coupled with weaning and weather stress, disease outbreaks can cause significant problems.
What are the treatment options?
In many circumstances, hygiene measures alone will not adequately control the level of oocysts in the environment. And, as noted previously, with oocyst excretion from adults at a very low level, it is infections in lambs and calves that are the source of the high levels of oocysts that can lead to clinical disease and production losses.
In this case, appropriate medication can be targeted at young stock that have been exposed to a significant challenge, thus preventing disease while allowing natural immunity to develop. Treatment options for young stock include sulphonamides (antibiotics, by injection), decoquinate (in feed) or the triazinone derivatives diclazuril and toltrazuril (oral drenches). Individuals with clinical signs of disease may also need other supportive treatments until the gut damage has had time to heal.
Whilst in-feed preparations rely on all animals eating enough to get an effective dose, oral drenches are generally the most convenient way of ensuring that each animal receives the correct dose at the correct time, allowing enough exposure to stimulate immunity before removing the parasites.
Management of coccidiosis
Good management of coccidia means helping animals to avoid disease and production losses whilst ensuring youngstock get enough exposure to the parasite to develop immunity.
Limiting the build-up of oocysts in the environment will help reduce infection pressure and the chances of disease. This can be done by taking simple measures such as:
Coccidiosis in lambs
Image Credit: NADIS
Coccidiosis in cattle
Image Credit: NADIS
1. Daugschies, A, Agneessens J, Goossens L, Mengel H, Veys P. The effect of a metaphylactic treatment with diclazuril on the oocyst excretion and growth performance of calves exposed to a natural Eimeria infection. Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) 199–206.
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