Nematodirus is a serious disease in lambs caused by the Nematodirus battus gastrointestinal (GI) worm. This is usually the first of the GI worms to affect lambs at the beginning of the grazing season; depending on the number of worm larvae ingested by lambs, it can cause severe disease or even death. It is vital to monitor the risk of Nematodirus, diagnose accurately and treat promptly if diagnosis is confirmed. It's important to note that other worms may also be present at the same time as Nematodirus, so it's worth doing a faecal egg count to check what's there.
Nematodirus disease in lambs is caused by the Nematodirus battus worm. The lifecycle is different to that of other gastrointestinal worms and is affected by the weather, which also then affects the volume of larvae that the lambs are exposed to.
Lifecycle of Nematodirus battus
Eggs that are passed out in the dung of the adult sheep in spring develop slowly through the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) larval stages inside the egg, and can survive on pasture for up to two years. They hatch from the third stage into the infective larvae when the weather changes from a prolonged cool period (over winter) to an average daily temperature of at least 10˚C.
The severity of disease in lambs depends on the volume of larvae hatching as a result of the weather, as outlined below.
The severity of disease in lambs depends on the volume of larvae hatching as a result of the weather:
Immunity to Nematodirus battus develops quite quickly following exposure, so adult animals that have had some exposure during the previous grazing season are not affected.
Disease is caused by larval stages damaging the small intestine of lambs. This damage prevents the gut wall from exchanging fluids and nutrients properly, so the first symptoms lambs would show are
In the case of the mass hatch, there will be a sudden onset of profuse diarrhoea with associated dehydration, and often death. As ewes are unaffected they are often seen to be still grazing whilst the thirsty lambs are crowded around drinking places.
Veterinary diagnosis is based on examination of faecal samples and post-mortem examinations and often rest on determining between Nematodirus and acute coccidiosis which have similar clinical signs, occur at the same time of year, and can be present at the same time. Faecal Egg Counts (FECs) will identify coccidiosis but not Nematodirus as the damage is done by immature larvae that are not producing eggs. It is vital that a diagnosis is made so that farmers can treat the right disease with the right product.
Treat promptly: In the case of an outbreak, anthelmintic treatment of all lambs, plus supportive therapy to manage dehydration, will be advised. Affected animals may need to be housed for a short period. Group 1 benzimidazole (BZ) - white drenches such as Rycoben™ - are the active of choice against Nematodirus battus as this group has high activity against Nematodirus and there have been very few confirmed cases of resistance to white drenches in this parasite in the UK.
Like many parasites, this nematode has shown an ability to adapt its behaviour and in some areas some outbreaks of disease are now being seen in autumn. This occurs when eggs on pasture develop to the third larval stage – without overwintering – and hatch in the autumn, with a ‘mass hatch’ potentially occurring in the warm, wet period following a dry summer. Lambs that avoided exposure in the spring are particularly at risk.